Only the tiny island state of Bahrain, home to the headquarters of the U. Some pro-democracy activists in Jordan have been undermined, given that many Jordanians remain loyal to the regime, due to its capacity to shield Jordanians from the turmoil on its borders. As countless televised scenes from the Arab Spring testified, women were on the barricades wherever uprisings occurred.
Faced with the unrelenting power of political change, the Kingdom of Morocco has again emerged as the leader of the Arab world. Less than six months ago, a Moroccan street vendor Mbarek al-Karassi imitated Bouazizi and set himself on fire, demonstrating that many of the conditions that led to Moroccan reforms could also lead to the unraveling of its government.
Looking ahead, a gloomy outlook seems justified. Heading for an Overhaul or an Overthrow? The success of this program will dramatically improve the quality of life and public satisfaction with the current regime.
The so-called "Arab Spring" has rendered pre-conceived notions about governance in the Arab world obsolete. This is what happened in Jordan and Morocco. Had Bahrain actually experienced revolution, arguments about the so-called exceptionalism of Arab monarchy would no longer be as vocal.
At the recent Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha, sheep were being handed out to voters, and over the last few months, the protest movement has been subject to a smear campaign, arrests, and intimidation at the hands of shadowy groups of pro-monarchy thugs known as "baltaja".
These aid packages, much like past assistance from Arab oil donors, mostly comprise fungible grants rather than conditional loans, and so can be spent by recipients just like domestic revenue. Like this one, a number of slogans carried confusing and disparate messages.
Christians have been murdered in Egypt and Iraq. Of course, not all Arab monarchies swim in material affluence. Yet over the past two years, political dissent has translated into mass mobilization in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia. Such democracy is now being seen as a historical process of development, modernization and education.
The television was on low, and my ears barely caught the news: Yet having the institutional means to pacify opposition does not guarantee the desire to do so.
Though the Saudis did not participate in the crackdown, they freed up Bahraini forces by providing security for key government installations and royal palaces. Egypt especially, which had been almost a puppet of Washington in its dealings with Israel, has already shown that it will not be as pliant as before.
Morocco and Jordan responded to popular mobilization with constitutional reform, but youth activists fared worse in the Gulf kingdoms, whose regimes embrace repression over compromise.
And in countries where the faces at the top have not changed, rulers know they can no longer govern by fear alone and that a new era, both perilous and unpredictable, has emerged in the Middle East.
Should polling be correct, it will be approved by a wide majority. Jordan and Morocco are two models - those which did not miss the train. In Bahrain, Syria and Yemen it has been worse: Western Europe and the United States should keep an eye on Morocco.
At the same time, the Islamists also face their greatest test. The Moroccan experience The contrary happened in Morocco; the Moroccan king preceded his Jordanian counterpart and resorted to a parliamentary government.The Arab Spring and Morocco's Reforms: Heading for an Overhaul or an Overthrow?
and economic reforms enacted in Morocco as a result of the Arab Spring Lewis, Aidan. "Why Has Morocco's King Survived the Arab Spring?" BBC News. BBC, 24 Nov.
Web. 15 July Rachid Elbelghiti, a freelance journalist from Morocco, told his story to Al Jazeera's Ahmed El Amraoui. To me, the Arab Spring was a peaceful civil movement by young people who had grown tired of. Manufacturing Consent in the Maghreb: How Mohammed VI of Morocco Survived the Arab Spring by David Michael Duke II A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the.
Morocco's monarchical system has drawn on its religious legitimacy and a discourse of reform as it tries to negotiate its way through the Arab Spring, as Aidan Lewis reports.
Morocco and the Arab Spring. February 26, Compared to the civil societies in Egypt and Tunisia that emerged in the wake of the Arab Spring, civil society in Morocco has been a component of the country’s socio-political fabric for over two decades. “Why Has Morocco Survived the Arab Spring?” BBC News, November Added to that, the Jordanian-Moroccan treatment did not only heal the Arab Spring, but political Islam too, which worried the old Arab regime that loves stability.Download